Commentary on the Parables -- Matthew 13

Matthew 13.3-8

The different ways of receiving the Word of God. The sower is our Lord Jesus Christ, Who, through the apostles and their succession proclaims the word of God. The field is the heart of man, for which the divine seed is destined. The chief lesson contained in the parable is that the effect of God's word upon the soul depends entirely on the preparation and disposition of him who hears it, just as the fruitfulness of the natural seed depends on the cultivation and quality of the earth in which it is sown. The three cases mentioned in which the seed brought forth no fruit, point out the chief hindrances which man put in the way of the efficacy of God's word.

The first class are those in whom there is wanting a good will to receive God's word with faith. They hear it indeed, but they will not open their hearts to it, because the devil and his human agents have succeeded by scorn, prejudice and false explanations in so setting them against everything supernatural, that they utterly refuse to believe. Take, for instance, the Pharisees in our Lord's time, and also the so-called "enlightened" men of the present day.

The second class have a good will and are religious-minded people, but they are shallow and weak in character. They receive the word of God eagerly, but their faith does not penetrate to the depths of their heart and will, and lacks firmness and steadfastness. Therefore they fall away as soon as trials and persecution put their faith to the test. Remember the Israelites in the desert!

The third class are those who have faith and hold fast to it, but who do not live up to it, being quite absorbed in the things of this world. They give themselves up to the concupiscence of the eyes, the concupiscence of the flesh, and the pride of life, and bring forth no fruits worthy of faith. They have faith, but it is dead.

The three principal enemies of faith and the life of faith are, therefore:
1. the devil and his allies, who seek to deprive men of the willingness to believe,
2. weakness and vacillation of heart and will,
3. the three evil passions which govern the world.

The word of God bears fruit in those only who, besides accepting it willingly, cherish it in a heart purified by faith, and patiently and perseveringly live up to their faith.

Religion and grace are, therefore, affairs, not of reason, but chiefly of the heart and will. A powerful understanding is not necessary or even sufficient for salvation, or to enable us to lead a life according to faith. What is indispensable is a good heart, willing to receive what is great and supernatural.

Application. You see by this parable how necessary it is that your heart should be well prepared for receiving the word of God. Have you always had a desire to hear God's word? Have you kept what you have heard in your heart, and made corresponding resolutions? Have you thought your religious instruction tedious? To which of the four classes described by our Lord do you think you belong? Pray fervently to the Holy Ghost before you hear any sermon, and listen attentively to it, with the resolve to take to heart and carry out what you hear.

Matthew 13.24-30

Evil in the Church of God. In order that the apostles and other preachers of the Gospel might not lose heart, when, in spite of all their efforts, men would not be converted, Our Lord teaches in this parable that it must needs be that evil shall grow up in the Church alongside of the good, and that the complete separation of the evil from the good will only take place at the end of the world.

God suffers evil in His Church, I. because He gave man a free will; 2. in order that the sinner may have time for conversion; 3. that the just may be proved and gain more merit; that even the wicked may bring glory to God, His holiness and justice being made manifest in them.

Holiness of the Church. When we say that God suffers evil in His Church, we do not mean in His Teaching Church, but in that part of it which is called 'the learning Church'.. The members of the Church instead of following her teaching, are at times led away by the false maxims of the world. Therefore what is evil in the members of the, Church comes from the devil and his allies, not from the Church herself. The Church sows only good seed by her teaching, her commandments and her means of grace; therefore she is holy, and leads to holiness those who obey her voice.

The General Judgment. The Son of Man, Jesus Christ, will come at the end of the world to judge the wiched and the just. (Seventh article of the Creed.)

Hell is the furnace into which the cockle will be cast, and where there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Heaven. The just will come to the kingdom of their Father, i. e. to heaven, and will be glorified in body and soul, shining like the sun.

Matthew 13.31-50

The growth of the Church. The parable of the grain of mustard seed means this: Even as from a very small grain there springs up large shrub, so would the Church of God have a small and insignificant beginning, but would grow and grow until she formed a mighty kingdom embracing all nations in her fold. In this parable, therefore, our Lord foretold the external increase of His Church. She was to be Catholic or world-wide.

The effects of Christianity. By the parable of the leaven our Lord described the manner in which His doctrine and grace would affect the hearts of men. The woman signifies the Church; the leaven, Christian truth and grace; while the meal denotes mankind, both individuals, the whole race collectively. Even as leaven lays hold of one particle of meal after another, and penetrates everywhere, until the whole rendered good and palatable, so would Christianity penetrate, purify and sanctify the hearts of men, and govern all their thoughts and aim until the whole of human society was raised and sanctified by the doctrine and grace of Jesus Christ.

The greatest of treasures. This treasure signifies the graces of Christianity, which far surpass all the riches of this world. He who has found the great treasure of faith and grace is fortunate indeed. He rejoices, and guards his treasure jealously, and is willing to give up everything rather than lose the faith and grace of God.

The Parable of the Pearl also signifies the great happiness of possessing the true faith and being in a state of grace. He who really and laboriously strives after truth and salvation will obtain them. "There exists, however, only one pearl without price, for there exists only one Truth. And even as the wise merchant who bought this pearl at the cost of all that he possessed, alone knew how rich he had become by the possession of it, so only those who belong to the Church and possess grace know how rich they are. Those who have not the faith are ignorant of its value, and have no conception how rich those are who possess it I" (St. Irenreus.)

The separation at the Last Judgment. The parable of the net full of good and bad fish conveys the same lesson as the parable of the wheat and the cockle. We became members of the Church when we were baptized; but our Baptism by no means ensured our reception into heaven. If we do not keep our baptismal vows and remain in a state of God's grace, we shall be finally rejected, and cast out of the net like the bad fish.

Application. The grace of God is the greatest of all treasures, and a pearl indeed without price. Have you ever lost it by mortal sin?

You can now understand better than you did before the meaning of the petition: "Thy kingdom come." May the kingdom of God, His holy Church, ever grow, ever put forth boughs and branches, and ever bring unbelievers and heathens into her fold! May the kingdom of God's grace and truth also continually sink into your heart, enlightening, purifying, and sanctifying you, so that you may be able to attain to God's everlasting kingdom in heaven! Say often and devoutly, and in this sense, the prayer: "Thy kingdom come", both for yourself, and for all those dear to you.

Taken from A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture.